RDA FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS - RDA FAQ
Resource Description and Access Frequently Asked Questions (RDA FAQ) is an initiative of Resource Description & Access (RDA) (or RDA Blog) to compile a list of questions people ask about RDA. Answers to frequently asked questions (FAQ) about Resource Description and Access (RDA) are given from the articles of RDA Blog in abbreviated form with links to the main articles. As RDA continue to be developed, questions and answers will be added and revised from time to time.
Resource Description & Access FAQ
WHAT IS RDA?
- Resource Description and Access (RDA) Introduction Background and History
- RDA: What it is --
- RDA Steering Committee (RSC)
- RDA Toolkit
WHY IT IS NECESSARY TO ISSUE A BRAND NEW STANDARD?
WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF RDA? / WHY IS RDA NEEDED?
RDA builds on the strengths of AACR2 but has some new features that make it more useful for description as a cataloging code for the digital environment in which libraries now operate.
- RDA is better at catering for digital resources and for resources with multiple characteristics, and will provide more guidance on the creation of authority headings.
- RDA has been developed with the end-user in mind.
- RDA provides a consistent, flexible and extensible framework for the description of all types of resources, including digital resources and those with multiple characteristics.
- RDA is compatible with internationally established principles, models and standards.
- RDA is compatible with a range of encoding schemas, such as MODS, Dublin Core, ONIX and MARC. It will allow library bibliographic records to be integrated with those produced by other metadata communities, and to move into the digital environment beyond library catalogs.
- RDA will enable, with systems support, the grouping together of bibliographic records for different editions, translations or formats of a work, to achieve a more meaningful display of data for users.
- RDA is a Web-based product, which enables catalogers to move between related instructions using hyperlinks, and to integrate their own institutional policies.
- RDA is a transitional stepping stone that requires only small changes to catalog records but moves the metadata in catalogs much closer to full utilization of FRBR models.
WHAT ARE THE FOUNDATIONS OF RDA? / WHAT ARE FRBR, FRAD, AND FRSAD? WHAT ARE THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO RDA? / HOW DOES RDA RELATE TO THE STATEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL CATALOGING PRINCIPLES (ICP)?
The acronym “FRBR” stands for Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records. FRBR was developed by an IFLA Study Group (1992-1997) and the FRBR Review Group is responsible for its ongoing development.
FRBR includes a conceptual model of entities and relationships and attributes, identifies specific user tasks (Find, Identify, Select, and Obtain) that bibliographic records are intended to fulfill, and recommends a set of elements for inclusion in national bibliographic records.
FRBR provides the conceptual foundation for RDA. RDA includes the FRBR terminology when appropriate (for example, use of the names of bibliographic entities: “work”, “expression”, “manifestation”, and “item”), uses the FRBR attributes as the basis for specific data elements to be included in bibliographic descriptions, addresses FRBR relationships, and uses the FRBR user tasks as the basis for defining a set of core data elements.
The acronym “FRAD” stands for Functional Requirements for Authority Data. This later conceptual model was also developed by an IFLA Study Group. The FRBR Review Group is working to merge this model with FRBR. The JSC used FRAD as the basis for instructions on authority control; the user tasks for authority data are Find, Identify, Clarify, and Understand.
The acronym "FRSAD" stands for Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data. This later conceptual model was also developed by an IFLA Study Group. The FRBR Review Group is also working to merge this model with FRBR. The RDA element for the subject relationship generally reflects the relationship associated with the entity work as defined in FRSAD.
RDA was initially developed concurrently with the work being undertaken by IFLA (the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) to revise the 1961 Paris Principles. Members of the JSC participated in the first of the series of IFLA meetings by the international cataloguing experts and in the ongoing work on the revision of the Paris Principles. The resulting IFLA Statement of International Cataloguing Principles informs the cataloguing principles used throughout RDA. The JSC will monitor the ongoing development of ICP.
WHO DEVELOPED RDA?
HOW CAN I ACCESS RDA? / WHO PUBLISHES RDA? / WHAT IS RDA TOOLKIT?
The Co-Publishers, consisting of the three national associations (The American Library Association, the Canadian Library Association, and the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals) are responsible for issuing RDA. The three associations serve as joint publishers for RDA, both for the online product and any offline products.
RDA Toolkit is published by the RDA Co-Publishers—American Library Association, Canadian Library Association, and Facet Publishing, the publishing arm of CILIP: Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals. ALA Publishing is responsible for the day-to-day management and development of RDA Toolkit.
For information on RDA Toolkit subscription options and pricing please visit the Co-Publishers website http://www.rdatoolkit.org/pricing. The site includes full details for consortia and group subscriptions and special extensions for training and classroom access.
For further details about RDA print products visit the Co-Publisher site. For libraries outside North America pricing and ordering information for print copies is available at Facet Publishing along with other newly published RDA related resources.
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RDA TOOLKIT AND RDA?
RDA Toolkit is an integrated, browser-based, online product that allows users to interact with a collection of cataloging-related documents and resources, including RDA: Resource Description and Access.
WHAT DOES RDA TOOLKIT INCLUDE?
RDA Toolkit includes:
- RDA instructions in English, French, and German that are searchable and browsable
- AACR2 Rule Number Search of RDA instructions through the Advanced Search menu.
- Workflows and other procedural documentation that is created by subscribers and can be shared within an organization or with the entire community of subscribers.
- Mappings of RDA to different schemas, including MARC 21.
- Two views of RDA content—by table of contents and by element set
- Full text of AACR2
- Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements(LC-PPC PS)
- National Library of Australia Policy Statements (NLA PS)
- British Library Policy Statements (BL PS)
- Anwendungsrichtlinien für den deutschsprachigen Raum (D-A-CH AWR)
- Music Library Association Best Practices (MLA BP)
- MARC Record Examples of RDA Cataloging
- What you need to evaluate and implement RDA; to make cataloging decisions based on principles; to increase efficiency; to facilitate collaboration; and to help position the community for the future by making bibliographic data accessible on the Web.
HOW OFTEN WILL RDA TOOLKIT BE UPDATED?
RDA content is under the control of the Joint Steering Committee, and details on the content update process can be found on their website at http://rda-jsc.org/content/rda_faq#2. Changes to the functionality of RDA Toolkit will happen at fairly regular intervals. In recent years there have been updates on RDA Toolkit in February, April, August, and October.
WHAT DOES RDA COST?
For information about cost and pricing options, see the publishers’ website.
WHAT IS RDA BLOG OR RESOURCE DESCRIPTION & ACCESS (RDA) BLOG?
RDA Blog is a blog on Resource Description and Access (RDA), a new library cataloging standard that provides instructions and guidelines on formulating data for resource description and discovery, organized based on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR), intended for use by libraries and other cultural organizations replacing Anglo-American Cataloging Rules (AACR2). RDA Blog lists description and links to resources on Resource Description & Access (RDA). It is an attempt to bring together at one place all the useful and important information, rules, references, news, and links on Resource Description and Access, FRBR, FRAD, FRSAD, MARC standards, AACR2, BIBFRAME, and other items related to current developments and trends in library cataloging practice.
RDA Blog History: RDA Blog is the first and oldest blog exclusively devoted to Resource Description and Access (RDA). RDA Blog was created by Salman Haider, a Cataloging & Metadata Librarian, Wikipedian, Blogger & Online Social Media Expert from India. RDA Blog embarked on its journey to provide useful information about Resource Description and Access (RDA) in August 2011. It received good response from librarians, catalogers, and library professionals from all around the world. It is interesting to note that the first hundred thousand page views to RDA Blog came in 3 years, but it took just 8 months to reach another hundred thousand page views. As per RDA Blog Traffic Stats [2016-01-26] RDA Blog is viewed more than 400000 times in 167 countries all around the world, chiefly being the United States. At present, it is viewed at a rate of fifteen to twenty thousand times per month. RDA Blog is widely followed in social media, referred by major universities, libraries, and library schools, cited in books and articles, and trusted as an authoritative source on Resource Description and Access (RDA) cataloging rules.
Follow RDA Blog in Social Media: Google+ | Facebook | Google+ Community | Twitter | YouTube | SlideShare | Tumblr | WordPress | Flipboard | Pinterest | LinkedIn
WHO IS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ONGOING DEVELOPMENT OF RDA?
The Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA (JSC), the current name of the committee, is responsible for the ongoing development of RDA. The JSC now consists of representatives from seven cataloguing communities. These include the American Library Association (ALA), the Australian Committee on Cataloguing (ACOC), the British Library (BL), the Canadian Committee on Cataloguing (CCC), the Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP), the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek (also including Austria and the German-speaking parts of Switzerland), and the U.S. Library of Congress (LC). The JSC representatives are assisted by the Chair of JSC, the Secretary of JSC, the Examples Editor, and various working groups (see question 2.3). See the list of JSC members.
WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF SUGGESTING CHANGES TO RDA?
Proposals for changes to RDA emanating from outside the author countries of RDA should be submitted to the Chair of JSC. Guidelines for submitting a proposal and a sample proposal will be posted on the website soon.
Comments on and questions about RDA can also be posted on RDA-L, an electronic forum for discussion of RDA. For details about RDA-L, see the information about the forum: http://lists.ala.org/wws/info/rda-l.
WHEN WAS RDA RELEASED?
WHEN WAS RDA IMPLEMENTED?
WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE TO IMPLEMENT RDA IN INDIVIDUAL LIBRARIES?
Conversion of existing records will generally not be necessary, as records created using RDA were made to integrate with AACR2 records in existing databases. The global updating of headings will be required in a few cases. For example, there will be changes to the structure of Bible uniform titles, and the abbreviated word "Dept." will be spelled out in full. The JSC has kept these changes to a minimum.
Changes to MARC21 have been made to accommodate new RDA data elements. Libraries will need to consult with their library system vendor about the vendor's plans to accommodate RDA changes.
Library systems will need to support the creation and exchange of RDA data. Systems vendors are aware of this impending change, that will require MARC21 changes. These MARC21 changes will need to be incorporated by vendors into the cataloging modules of library systems. This will enable the importing and/or exporting of bibliographic and authority records. Changes will also be required to indexes in library systems to allow for the search and display of new data elements.
Changes to existing records will generally not be necessary as records created using RDA were designed to integrate with AACR2 records in existing databases. However, global updating of headings will be required in a few cases, for example the headings for "Bible" will change in RDA and also headings for corporate names that include the abbreviation "Dept."
HAS OCLC RELEASED A POLICY STATEMENT ON RDA?
WHAT IS THE STRUCTURE OF RDA?
Remember that RDA has a clear structure:
- Table of Contents
- Specific instructions
- Appendices for
- Glossary with links to the text of the instructions
WHAT ARE RDA CORE ELEMENTS?
- Definition of RDA Core Elements
- Types RDA Core Elements
- Examples of RDA Core Elements
[Source: Core Elements]
WHAT ARE ALTERNATIVES OPTIONS & EXCEPTIONS?
- Alternatives Options and Exceptions in RDA : What Every Cataloger Needs to Know
- What are RDA Alternatives?
- Example of RDA Alternatives
- What are RDA Options?
- Example of RDA Optional Additions
- Example of RDA Optional Omissions
- What are RDA Exceptions?
- Example of RDA Exceptions
- How to decide whether to apply the alternatives, options, or exceptions?
- Note on the use of screen images from RDA Toolkit (Following RDA and RDA Toolkit Copyright Statement and guidelines)
WHAT IS LC-PCC PS?
WHERE ARE RDA EXAMPLES?
CAN A RECORD CATALOGED BY THE RDA STANDARD BE READILY IDENTIFIED?
WHAT DIFFERENCES WILL I SEE IN MY MARC RECORDS?
DOES RDA FOCUS ON THE RECORDING OF DATA, THE PRESENTATION OF DATA, OR BOTH?
IS ISBD PUNCTUATION REQUIRED IN RDA?
WHY AREN'T GMDs (GENERAL MATERIAL DESIGNATIONS) IN RDA?
-- content type (e.g., cartographic, textual, still image) – an attribute of an expression
-- media type (a general indication of the type of carrier, e.g., audio, projected) – an attribute of a manifestation
-- carrier type (e.g., audiocassette, slide, volume) – an attribute of a manifestation.
Representatives from the publishing community ONIX and the JSC established the original vocabularies for content, media, and carrier type based on a common framework for resource categorization (RDA/ONIX Framework). Because the content and carriers of resources collected by libraries and other information agencies continue to change, the JSC established a working group to update and maintain that Framework.
There will still be the possibility to give users an "early warning" regarding the content and carrier of the resource. However, that action will be taken in relation to the display of the data rather than the recording of the data. Also, the controlled terms in the RDA instructions for content, media, and carrier types can be replaced in local displays by terms chosen for local users.
Terminology used to indicate extent of the manifestation (called specific material designations in AACR2) includes some terms that are the same as carrier types; it is easy at first to confuse the two elements Carrier type and Extent. Other extent terms are specified in vocabulary lists of instructions for specific carriers; terms in common usage may be used.
WHERE IS THE INFORMATION FOR RDA CATALOGING NEWS AND NEW ARTICLES BOOKS PRESENTATIONS THESIS AND VIDEOS ON RDA?
WHAT ARE THE GUIDELINES FOR UNDIFFERENTIATED PERSONAL NAMES IN RDA CATALOGING?
- What is a Name Authority Record for Person
- What is an undifferentiated Name Authority Record
- What is the latest best practice on undifferentiated Name Authority Record
- Maintenance of existing undifferentiated records
- Examples of maintenance of undifferentiated Name Authority Records
- RDA attributes to create a unique authorized access point for the person being established
- Questions and Answers
HOW TO GIVE DATE OF PUBLICATION DISTRIBUTION COPYRIGHT IN RDA & MARC 21?
- Core Element
- How Date of Publication is defined
- Where the Rules are for Date of Publication in RDA
- What are the Sources of Information for Date of Publication in RDA
- How is Date of Publication Transcribed / Recorded in Resource Description and Access (RDA)
- Dates of the Non-Gregorian or Julian Calendar; Dates in the Form of Chronogram
- RDA Examples
- What to do if the date on the resource is incorrect
- Multipart Monographs, Serials, and Integrating Resources
- Date of Publication not Identified in a Single-Part Resource
- RDA Cataloging Examples of Dates
- Supplying Dates (Date of Publication Not Identified in the Resource)
- Importance of Supplying Probable Place and Date of Publication
- Examples of Supplying Publication Data
- Other RDA Examples of Dates
- Date of Distribution
- Where the Rules are for Date of Distribution in RDA
- What are the Sources of Information for Date of Distribution in RDA
- Recording Date of Distribution
- Dates of the Non-Gregorian or Julian Calendar; Dates in the Form of Chronogram
- Multipart Monographs, Serials, and Integrating Resources
- Date of Distribution Not Identified in a Single-Part Resource
- Copyright Date
- Coreness for Copyright Date
- Where the Rules are for Copyright Date in RDA
- What are the Sources of Copyright Date in RDA
- Recording Copyright Dates
- Other RDA Blog posts on Publication, Distribution, and Copyright Date
HOW TO RECORD NAME OF PUBLISHER IN RDA AACR2 & MARC 21?
- Core Element
- How is Publisher's Name is defined
- Where are Rules for Publisher's Name in RDA
- What are the Sources of Information for Publisher's Name in RDA
- How is Publisher's Name Transcribed / Recorded in Resource Description and Access (RDA)
- More than One Publisher in Resource Description and Access (RDA)
- Publisher's Name in More Than One Language or Script
- No Publisher Identified in Resource Description and Access (RDA)
- MARC 21 Field 264
- RDA Examples of Recording Publisher's Name in MARC 21 Field 264
HOW TO TRANSCRIBE PLACE OF PUBLICATION IN RDA AACR2 & MARC 21?
- CORE ELEMENT
- How is Place of Publication defined
- Where are Rules for Place of Publication in RDA
- What are the Sources of Information for Place of Publication in RDA
- How is Place of Publication Transcribed / Recorded in Resource Description and Access (RDA)
- More than One Place of Publication
- Language or Script
- Place of Publication Not Identified
A place of publication is a place associated with the publication, release, or issuing of a resource. (RDA Rule 188.8.131.52) ... ... ... (Read full article on the source mentioned below)
WHERE ARE THE LINKS TO IMPORTANT RDA BLOGS POSTS ON RECORDING PRODUCTION PUBLICATION DISTRIBUTION MANUFACTURE STATEMENTS AND DATES IN RDA AND MARC 21 FIELD 264?
Author: Salman Haider [Revised 2016-05-09 | Written 2012-12-12]